Mimicking the upper water layer of a rapid sand filter to study effects of various ions in water on the oxidation kinetics.

Description of the Application.

KWR generates knowledge to enable the water sector to operate water-wisely in our urbanised society. KWR stems from Kiwa, a certification institute for water pipe articles, established in 1948.

In this project, KWR looks at iron oxidation in the upper part of rapid sand filters.

To study effects of various ions in water on the oxidation kinetics, KWR wants to control dissolved oxygen continuously while keeping alkalinity constant.

This lab study will be combined with very hot data from X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which will be obtained at a synchrotron.

This data will allow KWR to couple detailed chemical composition of formed iron oxide deposits in real application rapid sand filters from several locations in the Netherlands to our well-controlled lab study on the effect of ions.


Gas Mixer vs. Gas Cylinder

The ability to blend different gases on-demand is an incredibly powerful tool in the development of innovative gas detection equipment. And provides a level of flexibility that gas cylinders cannot provide. Mixing of gases allowing for analysis of sensor response over a wide range of concentrations.

Cost & Space Saving

Significant reduction of number of gas mixtures required for initial sensor characterization. Usually one mixture and balance gas is enough. Buying cylinders is expensive and limits the availability of mixtures that may be required. Gas cylinders are also large and often require special storage arrangements, as well as taking up valuable space.

Successful Achievement

The MCQ gas blender is used for measurements of cross sensitivity of gas sensors to gases which might potentially occur in field application. Allowing on-demand, real time characterisation of sensors.

Flexibility and Compactness

By using the MCQ gas blender it is possible to dial up a simulation of a mixture at any time, and to a certain degree, different concentrations of the blended gas mixture. Compact gas blending solution that can be used in many applications, easy to transfer and operate.

Software Automation

Thanks to our Software PRO Version and its option "Automatic Program", now the KWR can bring forward experiments in automation. Moreover Software is easy to operate (no need for long training of personel).

Stable Flow and Repeatability

Thanks to our revolutionary method every gas flow has a great stability as KWR can easily conduct repeatability tests that can be used to verify components quality.


Company Info:

Water is the basis of life. It is essential for nature, people, food production and economic development. The availability of sufficient clean water has become a societal issue all over the world. In our water-wise world research programme we work on the optimal organisation and management of the water cycle, with a circular economy as a key driver and the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals in mind. Research at KWR is guided by our scientific vision, which is embodied in five research programmes.

(Ref: KWR website)

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