DRUGS & PHARMA
Description of the Application.
Nonreplicating and metabolically quiescent bacteria are implicated in latent tuberculosis infections and relapses following ‘‘sterilizing’’ chemotherapy. However, evidence linking bacterial dormancy and persistence in vivo is largely inconclusive. Here we measure the single cell dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication and ribosomal activity using quantitative time-lapse microscopy and a reporter of ribosomal RNA gene expression. Single-cell dynamics exhibit heterogeneity under standard growth conditions, which is amplified by stressful conditions such as nutrient limitation, stationary phase, intracellular replication, and growth in mouse lungs. Additionally, the lungs of chronically infected mice harbor a subpopulation of nongrowing but metabolically active bacteria, which are absent in mice lacking interferon-g, a cytokine essential for antituberculosis immunity. These cryptic bacterial forms are prominent in mice treated with the antituberculosis drug isoniazid, suggesting a role in post chemotherapeutic relapses. Thus, amplification of bacterial phenotypic heterogeneity in response to host immunity and drug pressure may contribute to tuberculosis persistence. Gas Blender 100 Series was used in one of the step of the experimental procedure, “Time-Lapse Microscopy of Intracellular Bacteria”, to supply an Air mixed to 5% of CO2 in the chamber to create a stressfull Hypercapnia condition.
Benefits and Savings.
A traditional method would require at least 2 mass flow controllers, an external control unit, a power supply, and a tubing system, or a massive investment of time in pre-mixed gas cylinders. This obsolete method would not neither solve the problem at its roots, because of a huge waste of time in gas delivering. With MCQ Instruments, the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) required only a single Gas Blender 100 Series device and its Software in Pro Version. The simple combination of these two factors has made possible an exponential number of experiments, reducing time, efforts, investments and collecting much more results. In pills:
The École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is a research institute and university in Lausanne, Switzerland, that specializes in natural sciences and engineering. It is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, and it has three main missions: education, research and technology transfer at the highest international level.
EPFL is widely regarded as a world leading university. The QS World University Rankings ranks EPFL 12th in the world across all fields in their 2017/2018 ranking, whilst Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks EPFL as the world’s 11th best school for Engineering and Technology.